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How Hydraulic Jack Lift Heavy Weight With Small Input Force ?

Hydraulic jack always be an option if we work with heavy equipment. For example when we want to change car’s wheel. To do that, we need to lift the vehicle. And hydraulic jack is a good choice to do that job.

But how the hydraulic jack can lift the heavy weight with small input force ?

in this article, I will show you inside the hydraulic jack when it works.

hydraulic jack animation

Hydraulic jack work using pascal’s law. With this principle, the hydraulic jack has an ability to lift a weight that has two or three time heavier than the input weight.

But here, I want to talk a lot about physics. I just want to show you how powerful this pascal principle, of course in simple explanation.

So, it can be said that the area very influence the weight can be hold. If you ever see a raft. When you stand in the raft with small area, you can sink. But if we make the raft larger, it can accommodate two or three people without sink.

It is a proof that the area very affected with the weight can be accommodate. In small area, we just need small force to make it sink. The larger the area, the bigger the force we need to make it sink.

Now we back to pascal’s law.

You can see there is a container with different diameter. Input diameter has smaller diameter than the output. Then, we put a piston on each cylinder. If we putting the load on the piston, then piston will move down and it contain the pressure.

Just like what we discuss before, due to small area on input piston it make the value of pressure bigger. The pressure will be continued to the output piston with the same value. But because the area of output piston is larger, the weight or force contained from the piston is larger.

To make it simple, if the output piston two times larger so the output force two times bigger. If it three time larger, so the output force three times bigger.

So the conclusion, hydraulic jack capable to lift high load due to there is a significant differ between input and output piston.

Following the principle, when we press the input piston the output piston will move up. And when we release the input piston, the output piston should be move down. But in fact, the output piston keep on position when we release the input piston.

Even when we press input piston for the second time, the output piston will move up again and again.

It happened because hydraulic have a pair of one valve. This mechanism only allow the fluid to pass in a direction depending the pressure value.

Just like this ilustration. When we give a pressure on the right side, the valve will open. And the fluid flow through the valve. But when we change the pressure on left side, the valve will close. And it will cut the flow, so the fluid is not flow back to the right side.

The hydraulic jack have two one way valve. This is located between the cylinder, and the one located on the reservoir path. Both of them have opposite direction. So, when we press the input piston, the first valve open, and another one will close. It make the fluid flow to the output cylinder.

It makes the piston rise.

When we release the input piston, there are increase of volume in the input cylinder. It will change the valve position. In this position, reservoir valve open and another one closed. So this volume enlargement, will suck the fluid from the reservoir tank.

To move the output piston down, we use a screw to bypass the fluid directly to the reservoir.

Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) Working Principle

Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) Working Principle

 We already know that the job of the transmission is to change the speed ratio between the engine and the wheels of an automobile. The transmission use two gears with different diameters. So that the rotation from the crankshaft, can be change to make it has more torque with lower speed.

But how about automatic transmission ? did this thing using several gears or not ?

In this article, we will learn about CVT transmission. Which is this transmission, widely use in automatic motorcycles.

Basic of Automatic Transmission

Unlike traditional automatic transmissions, continuously variable transmissions don't have a gearbox with a set number of gears, which means they don't have interlocking toothed wheels. The most common type of CVT operates on an ingenious pulley system that allows an infinite variability between highest and lowest gears with no discrete steps or shifts.

To change the speed ratio, CVT use variable diameter pulley. This pulley has ability to change the diameter, according to the engine speed.

To make it easier, I will dissemble every part of continuous variable transmission on motorcycles.

You can see, this component called drive pulley. While the other one, is driven pulley. Drive pulley is installed on the crankshaft section. So that, this pulley will rotate when the engine run, and the speed is influenced by crankshaft rotational speed.

While the driven pulley, located In the back. Attached with the wheel, and the speed is same as wheel rotation.

Both of the pulley, connected by a V belt.

As I tell before, that this transmission using variable diameter pulley. It refer to drive pulley, and driven pulley. Both of them has ability to change their diameter, but in opposite way.

It mean, when drive pulley increase the diameter, the diameter of driven pulley will shrink.

The basic of CVT to change the speed ratio

The basic is very simple. In low RPM, the drive pulley always on the smallest diameter. While the driven pulley, in maximum diameter. In this position, the drive pulley has smaller diameter than the driven pulley.

So, it will decrease the output speed. And the torque, is increase.

When we pull the throttle, engine RPM raise. The faster the engine RPM, the bigger the drive pulley’s diameter. So, this RPM increase will rise the diameter of drive pulley. When the drive pulley’s diameter is raising, the driven pulley will decrease it’s diameter automatically.

It make, both of the pulley have same diameter. So the engine speed is continued to the wheel in same speed.

In high RPM, the drive pulley’s diameter keep increase. It make the drive pulley has bigger diameter than the driven pulley. So the wheel rotation, will be faster than the engine RPM.

But how the drive pulley change the diameter ?

The drive pulley, use centrifugal force to change the diameter. To be more understand, let’s dissemble the drive pulley.

The drive pulley consist of three main part. The frame. This is a static component, that directly connected to the engine crankshaft. The slide plate. This is a moving component, that has function to make the diameter bigger, or shrink.

While this cylinder components, called roller. It’s like a ballast to control the movement of slider part. The roller are installed around the shaft. When it rotate, the centrifugal force will rise. Centrifugal force is an outflow force from the rotational movement.

In simple way, the centrifugal force will make the roller stay away from the axis. But, due to roller have crooked path, the roller movement will push the slider plate.

Each plate is made of two 20 degree cones facing each other. A belt rides in the groove between the two cones. When the two cones of the plate are far apart, the belt rides lower in the groove. and the radius of the belt loop going around the pulley, gets smaller. When the cones are close together, the belt rides higher in the groove. and the radius of the belt loop going around the pulley gets larger.

To keep the belt tight, the rear pulley will adapt the front pulley diameter. This pulley, has a spring that always push the plate in close position.

Another main component on automatic transmission, is centrifugal clutch.

This clutch will make the wheel stay quite, while the engine run on idle RPM. This clutch located in the driven pulley, at the wheel axis.

It use a series of component like a brake shoe. This shoe, connected to the driven pulley. In idle RPM, we can see the gap between the shoe and the drum where the drum connected to the wheel. But if the speed increase, the shoes will move outway. It will lose the gap, so the wheel will rotate according to the pulley rotational speed.

That’s how CVT works. It is very simple right ? what do you think ? type in comment below.

Can a Car Battery Charge Itself ?

Vehicle battery is a component that store electrical energy for the vehicle use. Note that the battery is only a stored component. It mean the battery only use to save the electricity.

So, the battery (in general ) has 12 Volt voltage at full charge.

When we use the battery, there is discharge voltage that makes the battery voltage drop in slowly.

But because the battery has no ability to recharge, it make the battery going to empty if it use for long time.

But, we never change the battery daily right ? it mean the batteries voltage always stable in 12 Volt.

What makes the battery stable even it always use ?

The answer is simple, the vehicle has charging system. The battery has no ability to recharge so that we need another system to recharge the battery.

Battery Function in Vehicle

the main responsibility of a vehicle battery is to provide the starting current needed to start the car, it is also responsible for powering all the other electrical components of the car, such as the headlights and the radio.

But, the battery job only on the beginning.

Once the engine run, we don’t need the battery anymore. Why ? because the charging system will active following the engine. The charging system will provide electricity for vehicle electrical needs and to recharge the battery.

How Charging System Work ?

Charging system use an alternator to change the rotational motion into electrical energy. The alternator connected to engine pulley, so that when engine run the alternator rotor rotate.

The alternator rotation will make the electromagnetic interception that makes the electron movement. It result electricity.

But the electricity provide by alternator sill in Alternate current. While the vehicle and battery need direct current. So that, it is not connected directly to vehicle electrical system.

But there is a diode bridge to change the AC current to DC. After passed the diode bridge, the electricity can be used to power up the vehicle electrical system (head light, horn, radio).

The thing you need to advice that the amount of voltage from charging system is not stable. When the engine run in low RPM, the resulting voltage can be lower than 12 Volt. In this condition, charging system can not use as electricity provider.

It mean battery still need to power vehicle electrical.

But when engine run at high RPM, the charging voltage can be higher than 12 Volt. It is bigger than standar voltage. So that every vehicle has voltage regulator. It use to regulate the amount of voltage to the vehicle electrical system.

So in conclusion, can a car battery charge is self ?

No, the car battery has no ability to recharge. It is only an electrical stored component.

But the vehicle electrical system has charging system. It makes the battery in the car keep stable, so we don’t need to replace it everyday because the battery never in empty voltage.

What is Material Use in Electric Car Batteries ?

What is Material Use in Electric Car Batteries ?

 The battery use in electric vehicle is different from battery use in engine powered vehicle. Electric vehicle totally use electricity as source of energy to drive the electric motor. So, rotation from the motor will rotate the wheel and it move the vehicle.

But what makes it different ? what is the material use to make electric car batteries ?

Electric vehicle use a battery know as li-ion battery. This batteries had been widely use in electronic devices such as gadget, and laptop.

So what is the different between li-ion and lead acid battery on vehicle ?

Lithium, Nickel, and cobalt are the main container of electric vehicle battery.

1. What is Lithium ?

Lithium is a silvery-white alkali metal that is light and malleable. It is the lightest metal available. The Earth's crust has about 20 parts per million of lithium, and the oceans have 0.17 parts per million; the atmosphere has only trace quantities.

With some very basic chemistry, the amount of lithium that a battery must produce can be measured. Lithium, like the other alkali metals, has only one oxidation state and produces only positive-charged ions. [6] This means that regardless of the chemistry of the lithium battery, the basic electrochemical reaction is the same., must be:

Li → Li+ + e-

The reaction in the case of a lithium-ion rechargeable battery goes like this: One lithium atom at the negative electrode divides into a lithium ion and an electron as the battery discharges, and the lithium ion migrates into the battery's internal structure.

As the electron leaves the battery and travels through the circuit to which it is connected, the lithium ion and electron recombine at the positive electrode. During recharging, the same reaction occurs in reverse.

As a result, a lithium battery must contain one mole of lithium to drive one mole of electrons through a circuit. A mole of electrons has a charge of 26.80 ampere-hours (Ah), and a mole of lithium has a charge of 6.941 10-3 lb. [number six] These figures are divided by two., if we calculate that for any lithium battery, the charge capacity per kg of lithium is

3861 A·h/kg (theoretical limit).

2. What is Nickel ?

Nickel is an important component of lithium-ion battery chemistries, which are used to power electric cars, medical equipment, and cordless power tools, as well as to store renewable energy.

Li-ion batteries are made by combining lithium compounds with other materials. Nickel is present in two of the most widely used Li-ion battery chemistries.

NCA (Nickel cobalt aluminium) battery contain 80% of nickel.

NMC (Nickel Manganese Cobalt) battery contain 33% of nickel.

Because of the high demand for battery-powered goods, the lithium ion battery industry will continue to expand. For applications such as electric cars and renewable energy storage, demand for energy-dense nickel-containing batteries will rise. Nickel is currently used in 39% of Li-ion batteries. This is expected to rise to around 58% by 2025.

Nickel in car batteries provides higher energy capacity and storage at a lower cost, allowing cars to travel further distances, which is currently one of the barriers to EV adoption.4

3. Cobalt

The majority of cobalt is extracted as a byproduct of copper and nickel processing. Battery manufacturers are looking for alternatives because of the high cost, but cobalt cannot be completely eliminated. Cobalt was the first commercial Li-ion battery cathode material.

Since the lithium ion has a positive charge when it is removed from the oxide (in the cathode), the cobalt changes its oxidation state, keeping the oxide electrically neutral. To account for the elimination of the lithium ion, a small amount of cobalt changes its electronic character from oxidation state +3 to +4,” said Abraham.

The transition metal portion compensates for the charge when the lithium ion enters or departs in the cathode. Oxides of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, chromium, zinc, or manganese are widely used as cathodes because they can change valence to preserve neutrality. 

What Type of Battery Is In an Electric Car ?

What Type of Battery Is In an Electric Car ?

Electric vehicle become the new interest for several people. The main reason, electric vehicles do not cause carbon residue.

As the name implies, the electric vehicle uses an electric power source as a substitute for fuel oil. So that in an electric car there is no combustion engine, that is what makes the electric vehicle not cause bad emissions.

just like other electronic equipment, the source of electricity in the electric vehicle is stored in the battery.

Then we have a question, what type of batteries use in electric vehicle ?

It is impossible to use lead acid battery because it has low capacity if it use to drive the car. So what kind of battery ?

Lithium Ion Battery

The lithium-ion battery is the most common type of battery used in electric vehicles. This type of battery is used in most portable devices, including mobile phones and computers, so it may sound familiar.

Lithium-ion batteries have a good high-temperature output, a high power-to-weight ratio, and a high energy efficiency. In practice, this means that the batteries can store a lot of energy for their weight, which is important for electric cars since lighter cars can go further on a single charge.

Lithium-ion batteries also have a low "self-discharge" rate, which means they retain their capacity to carry a full charge longer than other batteries.

Furthermore, most lithium-ion battery parts are recyclable, making these batteries an environmentally friendly choice. This battery is used in both AEVs and PHEVs, but its chemistry differs from that of consumer electronics batteries.

How Lithium-Ion Battery Work ?

One or more power-generating compartments called cells make up a lithium-ion battery. Each cell consists of three parts: a positive electrode (connected to the battery's positive or + terminal), a negative electrode (connected to the battery's negative or - terminal), and an electrolyte in the center.

The positive electrode is usually made of lithium-cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) or, in newer batteries, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) (LiFePO4). The negative electrode is usually made of carbon (graphite), and the electrolyte varies depending on the type of battery—but this isn't critical to understanding how the battery works.

Lithium-ion Battery Discharge and Charge

Lithium ions migrate through the electrolyte from the positive electrode to the negative electrode during charging. Electrons flow from the positive to the negative electrode as well, although they take a longer route around the outer circuit.

At the negative electrode, electrons and ions combine to deposit lithium. The battery is completely charged and ready to use when no more ions circulate.

During discharging, ions flow back from the negative electrode to the positive electrode via the electrolyte. Via the outer circuit, electrons flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode, charging your laptop. Lithium is deposited at the positive electrode as ions and electrons mix.

When all of the ions have returned to their original positions, the battery is completely discharged and must be recharged.

Lithium-Ion Battery Advantages

In general, lithium ion batteries are more durable than older systems like nickel-cadmium batteries, and they don't suffer from the "memory effect," which causes nicad batteries to become more difficult to charge even if they've been completely discharged first.

  • High energy density paves the way for even greater capacities.
  • When fresh, there is no need to prime it for a long time. All that is needed is a single daily charge.
  • Self-discharge is less than half that of nickel-based batteries, indicating that they have a poor self-discharge.
  • Low Maintenance: There is no need for a periodic discharge, and there is no memory.
  • Specialty cells can provide a large amount of current to applications like power tools.

Lithium-Ion Battery Disadvantages

When considering the disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries, it's important to remember what we're comparing them to. We just need to equate them to gasoline, not other types of batteries, as a power source for automobiles.

  • Despite significant advancements over the years, rechargeable batteries still only hold a fraction of the energy that regular gas does; in more technical terms, they have a much lower energy capacity.
  • To keep voltage and current within safe limits, a security circuit is required.
  • Even if not in service, the battery will age if not stored in a cool position with a 40 percent charge.
  • Transportation constraints - larger-scale shipments can be subject to regulatory oversight. Personal carry-on batteries are exempt from this ban.
  • Manufacturing costs are about 40% higher than nickel-cadmium.
  • Metals and chemicals are constantly evolving, so this technology isn't completely mature.

How to Read and Choose Correct Battery Size For Your Vehicle

How to Read and Choose Correct Battery Size For Your Vehicle

 The size of your car battery and selecting the correct battery for your vehicle's make and model are critical. If you choose the wrong one, your car will not work as it should or may, regardless of its specifications or how well it is maintained.

The spark that ignites the fuel that gets you started is powered by your car battery. It also assists in providing power to your lamps, indicators, navigation system, dash-cams, windscreen wipers, and electric windows, as well as a variety of other on-board electrical features.

Car batteries have a three to five-year average life span, assuming they're the right size for your vehicle; the wrong size can lead to unreliability and frequent breakdowns.

The size can prefer to physical size of batteries. But we often difficult to different each batteries because it has similar size.

But, the container of battery of course different.

There are two things that refer to battery sizing.

1. Battery Amp Hour

The amperage hour rating is used to tell customers how much power a battery will supply for one hour. The amp hour rating is typically provided in milli-amp hours, or mAh, in small batteries such as those used in personal vaporizers or regular AA sized batteries (mAh).

The ranking for large batteries is abbreviated as Ah. The Ah level of most deep cycle batteries can be seen at several C ratings. The C rating indicates how many amp hours the battery will deliver over a given time span. For example, a battery at C/5 could safely provide 26.8 amp hours. This means that it can supply 26.8 amps for 5 hours without shutting down..

In the meantime, the same battery could safely provide 36 amp hours for 100 hours. You'll want to compare amp hours with different C ratings depending on how much usage you plan to get out of your battery (daily vs sporadically). If you're not sure which C rating to use, the C/20 is the best choice. The C/20 is the middle ground, it will give you a general sense of battery performance.

The amp hour rating of a battery can be calculated by multiplying the current (amperes) by the discharge time (hours). Alternatively, if we know the battery's amp hour value, we can calculate how long the battery can last when providing a certain current.

Current (I) = 10 amperes ; Discharge Time (T) = 15 hours

Therefore, this battery would have an amp hour rating of :

Amp Hour = Current (I) x Discharge Time (T)

Amp Hour = 10 amperes x 15 hours

Amp Hour = 150 Ah

Rating = 150 Ah @ 15 hours

It mean, the battery will last for 15 hour on 10 amp discharging. If the discharge current is higher, the time will decrease. From this, we know that higher AH rating mean longer the battery last.

2. Cold Crank Amps (CCA)

The most common industry rating is CCA (Cold Cranking Amperes), which is a calculation of the current a fully charged battery can produce for 30 seconds while maintaining a voltage of 7.2 volts (12 volt battery) at -18°C.

CCAs are significant, but they aren't the best metric for hotter or more Australian conditions. They're the ratings that the battery industry uses to describe a new battery's capacity to start an engine in extremely cold conditions, and they're more applicable to the North American and European markets.

The CCA rating is more important if you live in a cold environment than it is if you live in a warm one. Since the starting power of a battery decreases as it ages, a battery with a higher starting power can provide you with more faith over time.

Replacement batteries should have the same or higher rating than the original battery. When you replace a battery with one that has a lower CCA than the original, you risk getting poor results.

But the amount of CCA doesn’t mean positive to all vehicle. Now, the vehicle has advanced starting technology. So the engine start load is reduce. So the excessive amount of CCA is non a factor that makes the battery good to choose.

It's difficult to choose the best battery for the vehicle or application because there are so many similar-looking black batteries on the market claiming to have the highest CCA scores.  

Given the negative effects of higher CCA on overall life and a vehicle's starter motors, it's important to know what the vehicle is used for and the operating conditions (including temperature) before choosing the best battery.

Don't be deceived by big CCA figures. The trick to selecting the right battery is to choose one with design features and internal components that are better suited to the vehicle's requirements and operating conditions.

What Kind of Battery is a Car Battery ? What The Best Kind For My Car ?

What Kind of Battery is a Car Battery ? What The Best Kind For My Car ?

A car battery is a system that drives the vehicle's electrical components. It is responsible for starting your engine, as well as ensuring that the lights, wipers, and music play, among other things. A car would not start without it, to put it bluntly.

Batteries have become integral units in recent years as the production of electric vehicles has increased. They store the electric energy required to operate the vehicle. Since batteries are rechargeable, they can now be used over and over again for an extended period of time.

Today, cars come with different types of batteries. Not sure what kind of car battery is in your vehicle? Worry not. In this guide, we take a look at the various types to help you identify the kind of battery fitted in your car.  

How do automobile batteries work?

When the ignition key is turned (or pressed in the case of an ignition button), the stored electrical energy in the battery is released. This electrical energy is quickly sent to the starter, which then starts the engine.

The extra power is then directed to electrical components, which are powered as a result. The alternator allows the battery to be charged and discharged. Your car would have issues if the battery level is too low.

Then what type of batteries that use in a car ?

A vehicle using electrolyte type battery. This type using electrolyte (it from sulfuric acid) to store and discharge electrical energy.

But the electrolyte type have some design.

1. Regular lead acid battery

A solution of sulfuric acid and purified water serves as the electrolyte in a lead acid battery cell. Pure sulfuric acid has a specific gravity of around 1.84, and it is diluted with distilled water before the specific gravity of the solution falls between 1.2 and 1.23..But, depending on the type of battery, season, and climatic conditions, the manufacturer of the battery may prescribe a particular gravity of diluted sulfuric acid.

regular lead acid battery have several caps. this caps use to fill the electrolyte and it be a way out for vapor created when battery reaction is on going. in othe words, in this battery you need to fully maintenance the battery. keep the electrolyte volume to get maximum battery performance.

2. VRLA battery

VRLA stands for Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid and refers to low-maintenance rechargeable lead-acid batteries. VRLA batteries do not need the addition of water to the cells on a regular basis due to their design.

VRLA batteries are also known as Absorbent Glass Mat batteries or Gel batteries. Although these batteries are often referred to as sealed lead-acid batteries, they often have a safety pressure release valve.

A VRLA battery, unlike vented (also known as flooded) batteries, cannot spill its electrolyte if it is inverted. VRLA batteries are often referred to as "acid-starved" designs because they use much less electrolyte (battery acid) than regular lead-acid batteries. The label "valve controlled" does not fully characterize the technology; these are "recombinant" batteries, which means that the oxygen evolved on the positive plates would largely recombine with the hydrogen ready to evolve on the negative plates, resulting in water—thus avoiding water loss.

The valve serves solely as a safety precaution in the event that the rate of hydrogen evolution becomes dangerously high. One benefit of this design is that it has a much higher power-to-floor-space ratio than big, flooded battery systems; another is that it has a high-rate power capacity, although for a short time. As a result, VRLA batteries are commonly used in UPS systems (uninterruptible power supply) or other high-rate applications.

Because of their specific features and advantages, VRLA batteries can be used in almost any flooded lead-acid battery application (in combination with well-regulated charging), as well as applications where conventional flooded batteries cannot be used.

Pros of VRLA battery

1. Referred to maintenance free battery

These batteries are known as maintenance-free batteries because they don't need to be watered. VRLA batteries outperform flooded batteries in applications where maintenance is difficult to conduct because there is no free liquid and limited gassing.

2. Less vapor

It has less vapor than VRLA, so the battery usage will be last for longer. And the battery has close design, so you don’t need to worry from electrolyte leakage.

However, the VRLA has some disadvantages. Users should exercise caution when charging this battery because overcharging and undercharging will shorten its life and reduce its efficiency. AGM batteries are most reliable when their discharge is limited to no more than 50% of the battery size.

And once the battery drop, you can not service it. It need to be replace.

You often find This type of batteries in off-grid power systems including environmentally friendly renewable energy systems like wind and solar power. They are also great for electric vehicle service and uninterrupted power supply systems, as well as robotics and some ATVs and motorcycles.

Beside the two type above, there is another battery type. It is gel type battery. This battery has same principle as VRLA battery. But the electrolyte form not In liquid, but it is gel form. So the performance clearly better than VRLA battery we discuss above.

But the price so expensive, that’s why this battery is not use in general car, but only several car use this battery like performance car.

The conclusion, What the type for my car ?

Many vehicle produce today using VRLA battery. It is use because the battery has free maintenance and it is not too expensive. So it is the best choice for your vehicle.

What Causes an Alternator To Overcharge?

What Causes an Alternator To Overcharge?

Alternator is a self power plant for the vehicle electrical needs. The alternator generates electrical energy to supply the electric needs of the vehicle and performs battery recharge.

So that the vehicle battery is always in full charge position.

The alternator works by converting the rotational motion into electrical energy. The alternator rotor is connected to the engine pulley, the alternator shaft rotation will produce electricity with varying values.

The value is based on the rotor rotational RPM.

That is a sign, when the engine is in a high RPM position, the value of the electrical energy generated by the alternator can be very large. Then, What if the alternator overcharge the battery?

Voltage Regulator Prevent Overcharging

Every charging system is equipped with a voltage regulator. This is a component to keep the voltage generated by the alternator from getting too high.

As I said above, the alternator is connected to the engine pulley directly via a belt. That means, the alternator shaft rotation is affected by engine RPM.

However, the voltage regulator will activate when the engine RPM increases.

There are several types of voltage regulators. One of them is the contact plate or conventional type. This type works using a contact point to adjust the input voltage leading to the rotor coil.

So the alternator works using the electromagnetic force. An electric current will be created when the magnetic field rotates in the coil. In the alternator, the magnetic field is not obtained from the permanent magnet but it is obtained from the rotor coil.

To make the coil rotor have a magnetic force, we need to apply an electric current to the coil rotor.

the value of the voltage applied to the coil rotor affects the strength of the magnetic field formed in the coil rotor.

The voltage regulator has options, whether the rotor coil will be supplied with full voltage (12 V), partial voltage, or 0 volts.

So simply put, the voltage regulator will deliver full voltage to the rotor coil when the engine RPM is low. The voltage regulator will switch to the partial voltage input when the engine speed is in middle speed.

When the engine is at top speed, no voltage is applied to the rotor coil.

So the contact point will switch automatically based on the engine RPM.

Then what causes the alternator to be overcharged?

Contact Point Gets Damage

If the contact point gets damage, of course it will interfere with the performance of the voltage regulator. The contact points can experience switch failure, which causes the input voltage to the rotor coil to always be at full voltage (12 V).

So that when the engine RPM increases, the charging voltage will increase until it exceeds capacity. (15 Volt or above).

What causes the contact point to get damage?

1. Impact on the voltage regulator

The conventional regulator is located outside the alternator. So, this component is prone to collisions. A collision will make the plate at the contact point stuck, so the contact cannot be switched.

2. The contact point is stuck

The contact point is made of steel plate. If the vehicle is not used for a long time, the plate may become stiff. So it doesn't allow for a switch.

3. Corrosion

Corrosion and rust are things that often appear on components made of metal. This rust will interfere with the contact points to get switch.

What's the solution?

Component replacement is the best solution. This component is easy to replace, because it is located outside the alternator. So you don't have to take anything apart.

But conventional voltage regulators are only used in vehicles produced in the past. Vehicles produced in the era of 2000. most of them use an electronic voltage regulator.

Then what makes the alternator overcharge on the electronic voltage regulator?

Faulty transistor is the reason that makes the alternator overcharged the battery.

Transistors are electronic components that are used to select the input line for the rotor coil. Just like the conventional regulators, electronic regulators also have input with full voltage, medium voltage and low voltage.

However, electronic regulators use transistors as a substitute for contact points.

Of course this can reduce the risk of damage caused by contact points. However, if one of the transistors is damaged then the alternator may undercharge or overcharge.

The bad things, the electronic regulator is located inside the alternator. So, when this failure occurs you have to replace a unit of the alternator.

However, this is a rare thing. Electronic alternators are more durable than conventional regulators.

What happens if I let the alternator overcharged?

This can damage some of the electronic components in the car. The ECU has been set to use 12 Volts, if the voltage on the system exceeds 12 Volts, the ECU and some sensors can malfunction.

So that there is a problem with the engine.

The bulb on your vehicle lighting is easier to break. This is because the filament of the bulb receives electricity with a voltage above the capacity.

Your car battery also dies faster, because the overcharge will make the battery electrolyte evaporation more massive.

So if you detect an overcharge on the charging system, fix it immediately.