Electric vehicle become the new interest for several people. The main reason, electric vehicles do not cause carbon residue.
As the name implies, the electric vehicle uses an electric power source as a substitute for fuel oil. So that in an electric car there is no combustion engine, that is what makes the electric vehicle not cause bad emissions.
just like other electronic equipment, the source of electricity in the electric vehicle is stored in the battery.
Then we have a question, what type of batteries use in electric vehicle ?
It is impossible to use lead acid battery because it has low capacity if it use to drive the car. So what kind of battery ?
Lithium Ion Battery
The lithium-ion battery is the most common type of battery used in electric vehicles. This type of battery is used in most portable devices, including mobile phones and computers, so it may sound familiar.
Lithium-ion batteries have a good high-temperature output, a high power-to-weight ratio, and a high energy efficiency. In practice, this means that the batteries can store a lot of energy for their weight, which is important for electric cars since lighter cars can go further on a single charge.
Lithium-ion batteries also have a low "self-discharge" rate, which means they retain their capacity to carry a full charge longer than other batteries.
Furthermore, most lithium-ion battery parts are recyclable, making these batteries an environmentally friendly choice. This battery is used in both AEVs and PHEVs, but its chemistry differs from that of consumer electronics batteries.
How Lithium-Ion Battery Work ?
One or more power-generating compartments called cells make up a lithium-ion battery. Each cell consists of three parts: a positive electrode (connected to the battery's positive or + terminal), a negative electrode (connected to the battery's negative or - terminal), and an electrolyte in the center.
The positive electrode is usually made of lithium-cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) or, in newer batteries, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) (LiFePO4). The negative electrode is usually made of carbon (graphite), and the electrolyte varies depending on the type of battery—but this isn't critical to understanding how the battery works.
Lithium-ion Battery Discharge and Charge
Lithium ions migrate through the electrolyte from the positive electrode to the negative electrode during charging. Electrons flow from the positive to the negative electrode as well, although they take a longer route around the outer circuit.
At the negative electrode, electrons and ions combine to deposit lithium. The battery is completely charged and ready to use when no more ions circulate.
During discharging, ions flow back from the negative electrode to the positive electrode via the electrolyte. Via the outer circuit, electrons flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode, charging your laptop. Lithium is deposited at the positive electrode as ions and electrons mix.
When all of the ions have returned to their original positions, the battery is completely discharged and must be recharged.
Lithium-Ion Battery Advantages
In general, lithium ion batteries are more durable than older systems like nickel-cadmium batteries, and they don't suffer from the "memory effect," which causes nicad batteries to become more difficult to charge even if they've been completely discharged first.
- High energy density paves the way for even greater capacities.
- When fresh, there is no need to prime it for a long time. All that is needed is a single daily charge.
- Self-discharge is less than half that of nickel-based batteries, indicating that they have a poor self-discharge.
- Low Maintenance: There is no need for a periodic discharge, and there is no memory.
- Specialty cells can provide a large amount of current to applications like power tools.
Lithium-Ion Battery Disadvantages
When considering the disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries, it's important to remember what we're comparing them to. We just need to equate them to gasoline, not other types of batteries, as a power source for automobiles.
- Despite significant advancements over the years, rechargeable batteries still only hold a fraction of the energy that regular gas does; in more technical terms, they have a much lower energy capacity.
- To keep voltage and current within safe limits, a security circuit is required.
- Even if not in service, the battery will age if not stored in a cool position with a 40 percent charge.
- Transportation constraints - larger-scale shipments can be subject to regulatory oversight. Personal carry-on batteries are exempt from this ban.
- Manufacturing costs are about 40% higher than nickel-cadmium.
- Metals and chemicals are constantly evolving, so this technology isn't completely mature.