8 Main Parts Of Diesel Engine And Their Function

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Diesel Engine Main Parts - Rudolf Diesel, maybe that name sounds strange to ours. But he is the one behind the invention of diesel engines. The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that utilizes diesel fuel to perform the combustion process. The working principle of the diesel engine is almost the same as gasoline engine, but there is little difference in step effort this machine.

How about the components ? is there any different ? of course there is a difference between diesel and gasoline engines. This difference arises because the diesel engine is have harder duty cycle, so the material used must also be adjusted. But in general 4 stroke diesel engine components are not nearly the same as 4-stroke gasoline engine. If we discuss, there will be hundreds of components on a 4 stroke diesel engine. These components certainly have their own duties and functions.

For now we will only discuss the main parts of 4 stroke diesel engine and their functions. The main component of a diesel engine is all the components that are directly related to the 4 stroke diesel fuel cycle. While other components that are not directly related like altenator or starter motor we will discuss in another article. So, what is the name of the main components of diesel engine 4 stroke? refer to the article below

1.Cylinder Block Asyembly


Cylinder block is the main component of internal combustion engine both 2 stroke and 4 stroke. This component becomes a primary component to place various engine compartments that support the working process of the machine. As we can see in the picture above, the shape of the cylinder block of each machine is generally the same but the details will be different. That's because the details of the cylinder block are adjusted with all components that will stick to this block.

Cylinder block made of cast iron which has a high degree of precision. Generally on a block cylinder has several components ;


  • Cylinder / main linner. This component will serve as a place up and down the piston.The components is made of iron and aluminum alloy located inside of engine block using press methode, so it will be difficult to detach.
  • Water jacket. Water jacket is a cooling water sheath located inside the engine block. The goal for the engine cooling process takes place. hole-shaped water jacket inside the cylinder block that surrounds the linner.
  • Oil feed lines. The oil hole on the cylinder block serves to create the engine oil line from the cylinder head to the crankcase. This hole will support the engine oil circulation process to all diesel engine parts.

2. Cylinder Head Asyembly


The second component unit is located on the top of the engine. Similar to cylinder block, this component is also made of cast material. Currently aluminum head cylinder seems to be an option, because it is lighter and stronger. This unit consists of valve & spring, camshaft, rocker arm, and combustion chamber.


  • Valve & spring. This component becomes the door that will open and close the intake and exhaust channels on the combustion room. While spring will keep the valve closed.
  • Camshaft. Camshaft is a component that have several cam, this cam have a fungtion to press the valve. Once valve pressed, the chanel of intake or exhaust port will open.
  • Rocker arm. This component will press the valve when the nok touches the top of the rocker arm. So the in / ex channel can open. Generally rocker arm has valve gap adjustment system, either manual or automatic (Hydrolic Lash Adjuster).
  • Combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is a small space used for combustion. the result is a blast of fire used to push the piston down. Usually this combustion chamber is found on indirect injection diesel engine.

3.Piston and connecting rod


Piston have a function to adjust the volume inside the cylinder. why the volume of the cylinder needs to be regulated? this is so that the working process of the 4 stroke engine can take place. In this case when the piston moves down the volume of the cylinder will enlarge, while when the piston moves up the volume of the cylinder will shrink. While connecting rod serves to continue the motion up and down the piston to flywheel. In general there are three core parts on the piston namely;


  • Ring compression. This rings are elastic in function to prevent the occurrence of air leaks during the compression stroke. The way this ring works is to close the gap between the piston wall and the main linner.
  • Oil ring. Ring printed under the compression ring serves to prevent engine oil from entering the combustion chamber.
  • Pin pistons. A pin located inside the piston to connect the piston with the connecting rod. This pin is tubular, when connected to the small end it will function like a hinge.

4. Crankshaft

Crankshaft  is a component made of cast iron which is used to turn the piston up and down motion into a rotary movement. The working principle of crankshaft is similar when we using a bicycle. Because it is related to the pressure of the piston, the crankshaft should not be supple or fracture when it gets pressure from the piston. For this component is made of special iron alloy that has high strength and anti-fastness. Some parts on the crankshaft are;

Crank pin. Crank pin is a pin that will connect to the big end on the connecting rod.
Crank journal. While the crank journal is a pin that serves as a shaft on the crankshaft in order to spin. Crank journaling will be attached to the cylinder block.
Weight balance. This component is located opposite the crank pin, its function as a counterweight as well as to drain the oil to the entire inside of the machine.

5. Oil Pan

Oil pan (Carter) is a special tub that serves to accommodate engine oil. Although only served as a container of engine oil, this component also can not be made carelessly. Generally these components are made of thin iron like zinc, but some cars have combined with thicker materials.

6. Timming Chain Asyembly


The timing chain is included in the valve mechanism system, its function to connect the crankshaft and camshaft rotation with a certain angle. The component of this chain is located on the front of the engine. This chain will connect the sprocket gear from the crankshaft with the sprocket gear of the camshaft.

7. Fly Wheel


Flywheel initially serves to balance the engine speed. This component is made of solid iron that can store torque, that's why this component can balancing the engine speed.

In addition, flywheel also serves to power the engine, this can be seen from the outside of the flywheel that has many gear. The gear will be connected with starter motor pinnion to start the engine.

8. Fuel System Asyembly

This component consists of fuel tank to injector. Diesel fuel system serves to supply a number of diesel fuel into the combustion chamber during the stroke. There are two kinds of fuel systems in diesel engines, namely conventional and common rail systems. The advantages of diesel engines that use common rail is more efficient and economic. This is because the common rail system has been carrying computerized control, so the calculations can be done accurately.

The above components are very influential on the success of the diesel engine working cycle. If there is damage to any of the above components, the diesel working process will be disrupted.

Probably enough to here our discussion of the main parts of diesel engine and their function, may be useful.