Disc Brake Construction and Working Principle

One of the most used brake type is a disc brake.

Disc brake, has a higher effectiveness than other types. The disc brake construction is also simple, making it easy to maintain and more durable.

Then how is the construction and working principle of disc brakes?

Disc Brake Working Principle

In general, the brakes work using friction between two components. The friction will cause one of the components to stop moving.

In disc brakes, friction is obtained between the static brake pad and the rotating disc.

When braking occurs, the brake pad clamps the disc. The clamp will produce friction between the disc and the brake pad. so that the disc stops rotate.

This is the characteristic of disc brakes, where friction is obtained from the brake pads that clamp the disc.

This braking technique causes concentrated braking power. So that the dish stops faster.

Disc Brake Construction

Generally, disc brakes use a hydraulic brake system to move the brake pads. Disc brake consists of several components as follows;

  • Disc brake, a rotating component connected to the wheel axle. The disc becomes a friction medium.
  • Brake pads, static components to rub against the disc. Brake pads are made of non-metal material, so that the friction does not cause sparks.
  • Brake caliper, a component to drive two brake pads. Brake calipers, causing the brake pads to clamp down on the disc.
  • Caliper bracket, a bracket for installing disc brake components.
  • Master cylinder, an input tube for converting pedal motion into hydraulic pressure

Hydraulic Disc Brake System Working

When the driver depresses the brake pedal, the piston in the master cylinder moves forward. So that the fluid pressure increases.

According to Pascal's law, the increase in fluid pressure will be uniform across all hydraulic lines.

Inside the brake caliper, there is a piston connected to the hydraulic line. So that the increase in hydraulic pressure will move the piston inside the brake caliper.

This piston movement is used to push the brake pads. So that the brake pads clamp the disc.

2 types of brake calipers that are widely used in disc brakes.

1.Floating caliper

The floating caliper is a caliper with the ability to slide. The floating caliper only has a piston on one side of the brake pads.

But due to floating ability, when the piston moves, it will slide the calipers too. So that even if there is only one piston, the two brake pads are able to clamp the disc with the same power.

2.Fixed caliper

Fixed caliper cannot move like floating caliper. So that it has two pistons inside the caliper on both sides of the brake pads. So that the two brake pads will get pressure from the piston moving opposite each other.

Therefore, brake pads are able to clamp the brake disc.