One of the important aspects of vehicle maintenance is changing the engine oil according to the applicable intervals.
Many technicians say, if you are often late to change engine oil it will negatively affect the car engine.
Why is oil so important? how does engine oil work?
The Things That Make Engine Need Oil
Oil is a substance that lubricates the surface. Therefore oil is used in the engine because it can lubricate the engine components.
For clarity, I want you to know that the engine consists of hundreds of components. The power output of the engine is in the form of rotation, to produce the rotation from fuel combustion, we need very complicated mechanism.
This mechanism involves many components rubbing against each others.
For example, piston rings and cylinders. These two components will always rub together. The crankshaft also has a lot of rubbing components.
And don't forget that the engine components are made of metal. If metal rubs against metal it will scratch the rubbing surface. If the friction surface is uneven, it causes large friction forces (such as tires and roads).
If the friction is large, the engine components will be heavy to move. So that this will make the engine unable to run.
Oil will enter the gaps of the rubbing components as coatings. For example the friction between the piston ring and cylinder. A thin layer of oil will enter the gap between the piston ring and cylinder. So that the piston rings and cylinders do not rub together directly, but are coated with oil.
The same thing happens to all parts of the engine that rub to another. As a result, the friction surface remains smooth so that the friction force is small. It makes light movement of the engine components, so the engine can run up to high RPMs.
Engine Oil Cycle
Most engines have an inline configuration with the piston standing. Meanwhile, the oil will be affected by gravity so that the oil will collect at the lowest point of the engine.
That is why, to make oil can do its job optimally, there are several additional components.
1. New oil enters through the cylinder head
When oil is first filled into the engine, it is through the oil cap located on the cylinder head. Due to the effect of gravity, oil will drop and collect on a component called the oil pan. This is a kind of tub that has functions to collect oil.
2. Oil is pumped to all parts of the engine
Inside the oil pan, there is an oil pump. When oil has entered the engine, it will soak the oil pump in the oil pan. Oil pump, connected to the crankshaft, so that when the engine starts, the oil pump starts operating.
The oil will be pumped into the oil line that has been made by the engineer in the cylinder block. So through the oil line, oil will be distributed to several parts including the cylinder head, so that the components inside the cylinder head are also well lubricated.
3. Oil passes through the filter
Before entering the oil line, usually the oil will be passed through the oil filter. This is a component for filtering solid particles carried by oil. The goal is to prevent dirt on the pumped oil that can clog the oil line and cause scratches when it gets into the component gaps.
4. Oil back to the oil pan
After lubricating the components, the oil will be affected by gravity so that it moves back to the oil pan. When the oil returns, the color of the oil begins to change. Because oil has been contaminated by heat and combustion deposits.
But that's not a problem because oil can still do its job well.
So in the engine, the oil will rotate from the oil pan to all parts of the engine and back to the oil pan.
Other Functions Of Oil
Apart from being a lubricant, the oil produced now also has other functions, among others;
1. As an anti-corrosion liquid
Corrosion is very likely to occur in components made of metal, including engine components. Oil has the ability to last longer to engine components. So that it can avoid oxidation.
2. As a detergent
As I said before, when the oil circulates, the color of the oil starts to turn black. This is because oil is rinsing engine components. So when there is a deposit attached to the engine component, it will be rinsed by the oil so that the oil color changes but the engine components remain clean.
3. As a heat transfer
When you start the engine in the morning, oil plays a role in distributing heat. Initially the heat will be concentrated in the cylinder head. The heat travels to the oil and because the oil circulates, the heat also circulates.